1. 首頁
  2. 祈使句的虛擬語氣

英語語法:虛擬語氣中,如果主句是祈使句,其主句時態該如何變化

 

英語語法:虛擬語氣中,如果主句是祈使句,其主句時態該如何變化?

  如果主句是祈使句 條件句是真實條件句用一般現在时   即主句是祈使句 條件狀語從句用一般現在時   所以虛擬語氣中 沒有动詞原形開頭的祈使句

虛擬語氣和主將從現的區別?

  前者包括後者   後者就是虛擬語氣的一種   主將从現是指在時間狀語從句和条件狀語從句中,如果主句是一般將來時,從句用一般现在時替代一般將來時.   常見的有以下四種情況:   一、條件狀語從句的主句是一般將來時,那麼從句常常用一般現在時   如:When I grow up,I’ll be a nurse and look after patients   我長大後要當一名護士,照顧病人   二、如果主句是祈使句,那麼從句通常要用一般現在時   如:Don’t laugh at me when I make a mistake.   我犯錯誤的時候不要笑話我.   三、如果主句是含有情態動詞的一般現在時,根據需要從句多用一般現在時   如:You should be quiet when you are in the reading room   在閱覽室时應保持安靜   四.如果if的條件狀語從句遇到變换間接和直接時 ,祈使句应用not to.   如; She said not to close the window   常見的時間狀語從句的連詞有:as soon as,when,while ,as,until等   主將從現說的是在含有時間状語從句和條件狀語從句的主從複合句中,如果主句的时態是一般將來時,那麼從句要用一般現在時.例如:   I will tell him about it when he comes.   If it is fine tomorrow,we will go outing.   如果主句的時態是過去將来時,那麼從句要用一般過去時.例如:   He said that he would have another try if he had the chance.   I knew he could help me if he was free the next day.   主要標誌有:if unless until when as soon as

Ask Tom to ring me up if you should see him. 前面是虛擬語氣還是祈使句?

  前面Ask Tom to ring me up是祈使句,後面if you should see him是虛擬語氣,表示你見到他的可能性比較小。后面也可以是if you saw him或if you were to see him.也可以不用虛擬語氣if you see him

if引導條件狀語從句時,如果從句是虛擬語氣,主句可以是祈使句嗎 If you found my?

  可以,if引導條件狀語从句,主祈從現

虛擬語氣和主將從現的區別?

  前者包括後者   後者就是虛擬語氣的一種   主將从現是指在時間狀語從句和条件狀語從句中,如果主句是一般將來時,從句用一般现在時替代一般將來時。   常見的有以下四種情况:   一、條件狀語从句的主句是一般將來時,那麼從句常常用一般現在時   如: When I grow up, I’ll be a nurse and look after patients   我長大後要當一名護士,照顧病人   二、如果主句是祈使句,那麼從句通常要用一般現在時   如:Don’t laugh at me when I make a mistake.   我犯错誤的時候不要笑話我。   三、如果主句是含有情態動詞的一般現在時,根據需要從句多用一般現在時   如:You should be quiet when you are in the reading room   在閱覽室時應保持安靜   四. 如果if的條件状語從句遇到變換間接和直接時 , 祈使句應用not to....   如; She said not to close the window   常見的時間狀語從句的連詞有:as soon as,when,while ,as,until等   主將從現說的是在含有時間狀語從句和條件状語從句的主從複合句中,如果主句的時態是一般將來时,那麼從句要用一般現在時。例如:   I will tell him about it when he comes.   If it is fine tomorrow, we will go outing.   如果主句的時態是過去將來時,那麼从句要用一般過去時。例如:   He said that he would have another try if he had the chance.   I knew he could help me if he was free the next day.   主要標誌有:if unless until when as soon as

虛擬語氣不可省略should的情況?

  有以下幾種:   1,有一種與將來事實相反的情況,If條件從句用If+主语+should do後面主句是用主語+would+do/祈使句   例如:If it should rain tomorrow,don't expect me./I would not go there.   2,用于虛擬語氣的定語從句,It's time (that)+主語+should do(有時侯也用could do)   比如:It's time (that)you should take medicine.   3,虛擬語气中用wish或if only   在這種用法與將来事實相反時,用情態動詞+動詞原形(有時會用should do,不過一般情況下都是用would,你滿記一下)   4,就是should have done,一般用在虛擬語气的與過去事實不符的情況中,語氣表肯定,意思是你本來就應該……,但是沒做到,不強調能力問題。     就這幾種了。

怎麼分析“Hope you succeed”這句話的虛擬語氣的用法?

  這不是虛擬語氣句,是真实語氣的祈使句。   事實上,這個句子是I hope (that) you will succeed.的簡化說法,以至於看上去是兩個動詞被單個名詞割裂的樣子。

直接引語變間接引語;虛擬語氣?

  一隨主”是指在直接引語变間接引語時,如果從句中的主語是第一人稱或被第一人稱所修飾。從句中的人稱要按照主句中主語的人稱變化如:   She said. "My brother wants to go with me. "→She said her brother wanted to go with her.   “二隨賓”是指直接引語变間接引語時,若從句中的主語及賓語是第二人稱。或被第二人你所修飾。從句中的人稱要跟引號外的主句的賓語一致。如果引號外的主句沒有宾語。也可以用第一人稱,如:   He said to Kate. "How is your sister now?"→He asked Kate how her sister was then。   “第三人稱不更新”是指直接引語變間接引语時。如果從句中的主語及宾語是第三人稱或被第三人称所修飾從句中的人稱一般不需要變化如:   Mr Smith said。 "Jack is a good worker。"→Mr Smith said Jack was a good worker。   變時態:   直接引語在改為間接引語時、时態需要做相應的調整。   現在時它需改為過去時態;過去時態改為完成時;過去完成時則保留原來的時態。如:   1)She said. "I have lost a pen."→She said she had lost a pen   2)She said. "We hope so."→She said they hoped so.   3) She said. "He will go to see his friend。"→She said he would go to see his friend。   但要注意在以下幾種情況下。在直接引語變為間接引語時,時態一般不變化。   ①直接引語是客觀真理。   "The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth, the teacher told me. → The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth。   ②直接引語是過去进行時,時態不變。如:   Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?"→Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street。   ③直接引语中有具體的過去某年、某月、某日作狀語,變為間接引語時,時態不變。如:   Xiao Wang said. "I was born on April 2l, 1980。" →Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980。   ④直接引語如果是一般現在時。表示一種反覆出现或習慣性的動作,變間接引語,時態不變。如:   He said, "I get up at six every morning。" →He said he gets up at six every morning。   ⑤如果直接引語中的情態動詞沒有過去時的形式(例:ought to, had better, used to)和已經是過去時的形式時,(例:could, should, would, might)不再變。如:   Peter said. "You had better come have today。" →Peter said I had better go there that day。   三、如何變狀語:   直接引語变間接引語,狀語變化有其内在規津,時間狀語由“現在”改為“原來”(例:now變為then, yesterday。變為 the day before)地點狀語,尤其表示方向性的,或用指示代詞修飾的狀語,由“此”改為“彼”(例:this 改為that),如:   He said, "These books are mine." →He said those books were his.   四、如何變句型:   ①直接引語如果是陳述句,間接引語應改為由that引導的賓語從句。如:She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes."→She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes.   ②直接引語如果是反意疑問句,选擇疑問句或一般疑問句,间接引語應改為由whether或if引導的賓語從句.如:He said, "Can you swim, John?" →He asked John if he could swim.   "You have finished the homework, haven‘t you?" my mother asked. →My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework.   "Do you go to school by bus or by bike?" →He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike.   ③直接引語如果是特殊問句,間接引語應該改為由疑問代詞或疑問副詞引導的賓語从句(賓語從句必須用陳述句語序)。   She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?"→ She asked me when they had their dinner.   ④直接引語如果是祈使句,間接引語應改為"tell(ask, order, beg等) sb (not) to do sth."句型。如:   "Don’t make any noise," she said to the children. →She told (ordered) the children not to make any noise. "Bring me a cup of tea, please," said she.→She asked him to bring her a cup of tea.   ⑤直接引語如果是以“Let‘s”開頭的祈使句,變為間接引語時,通常用“suggest +動句詞(或從句)。”如:   He said, "Let’s go to the film." →He suggested going to the film.或He suggested that they should go to see the film.   引述別人的話有兩種方式:一是使用引號引出人家的原话,這叫做直接引語;一是用自己的話把人家的話轉述出來,這叫做間接引語。例如:   John said, "I’m going to London with my father."   約翰說:"我要和父親到伦敦去。"(引號內是直接引語)   John said that he was going to London with his father.   約翰說,他要和他父親去伦敦。(賓語從句是間接引语)   由直接引語變為间接引語,分以下情況:   1. 直接引語是陳述句時   間接引語為that引導的賓語從句(口語中that可以省略),主句的引述動詞主要有say ,tell, repeat, explain, think等。   He said , "You are younger than I."-’He said (that ) I was younger than him.   2.直接引語是疑問句時   間接引語為陳述語序:主句的謂語動詞say 改為ask,或改為wonder, do not know, want to know, be not sure, be puzzled等。   (1) 一般疑問句或反意疑問句變為if (whether)引導的賓語從句。   She said, "Do you often come here to read newspapers?"   →She asked me if (或whether)I often went there to read newspapers.   She asked me , "You have seen the film, haven’t you?"   →She asked me whether(或if )I had seen the film.   (2) 選擇疑问句變為whether….or 賓語從句。   I asked him, "Will you stay at home or go to a film tonight?"   →I asked him whether he would stay at home or go to a film that night.   (3)特殊疑問句變為由原來的疑問詞引導的賓語從句。   He asked , "Where do you live?"   →He asked me where I lived.   3.直接引語是祈使句時   間接引語為不定式,作ask , tell, beg, order, warn, advise等動詞的賓語補足語(don’t 變為not ).   The teacher said to the boy, "Open the window."→The teacher told the boy to open the window.   His father said to him , "Don’t leave the door open."→His father told him not to leave the door open.   [注意]   (1) 有些表示建議、提議、勸告或要求的祈使句,可以用suggest ,insist等動詞 加以轉述。例如:   He said, "Let’s go to the theatre."   →He suggested (our )going to the theatre.或He suggested that we(should) go to the theatre.   (2) "Would you mind opening the window?" he asked.   →He asked me to open the window.   "Why don’t you take a walk after supper?" he asked .   →he advised me to take a walk after supper.   "Shall we listen to the music?" he asked.   →He suggested listening to the music.   4.直接引語是感嘆句時   間接引語為what 或how 引導,也可以用that 引導。   She said, "What a lovely day it is !"   →She said what a lovely day it was .或She said that it was a lovely day.   5.如果主句謂語动詞為各種現在時或一般將来時,則間接引語中的動詞仍保持直接引語原來時態。如果主句謂語動詞為過去時,間接引語中的動詞時態按下列變化:   (1) 一般現在時變為一般過去時   (2) 現在進行時变為過去進行時   (3) 一般將來時變為過去將来時   (4) 現在完成時變為過去完成時   (5) 一般過去時變為過去完成時   (6) 過去完成時不變,仍為過去完成時   [注意]   (1) 如果直接引語是表示客觀真理時,變為間接引语,一般現在時不改為一般过去時。如:   The teacher said "The earth goes round the sun."   →The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.   (2) 如果直接引語中有明確表示過时間的狀語,變為間接引語时,一般過去時不改為過去完成時。如:   He said to me, "I was born in 1973."   →He told me that he was born in 1973.   (3)如果直接引语所述事實在當時和目前同样生效,變為間接賓語時,一般現在時不改為一般過去时。如:   He said, "I’m a boy, not a girl."   →He said that he is a boy ,not a girl.   (4)如果直接引語中的謂语動詞表示一種反覆出現或习慣動作,在變為間接引時,一般現在時不改為一般過去時。如:   The girl said, "I get up at six every morning."   →The girl said that she gets up at six every morning.   (5)如果直接引語中含有since, when, while 引導的表示過去時間的狀语從句,在變為間接引語時,只改變主句中的謂語動詞,從句的一般過去時則不變。如:   He said to me, "I have taught English since he came here ."   →He told me that he had taught English since he came here.   (6)如果直接引語中含有情態動词 must, need, had better以及情態動詞的過去式could, might, should, would,在變為間接引語時,這些情態動詞沒有時態的改變。例如:   The teacher said to me . "You must pay more attention to your pronunciation."   →The teacher told me that I must (have to ) pay more attention to my pronunciation.   He said , "I could swim when I was only six ."   →He said that he could swim when he was only six.   6.代詞等一般地應作用相應的变化。   指示代詞 this ---that   these--- those   表示時間的词 now --- then   today--- that day   this week(month ,etc) ----that week (month ,etc)   yesterday ----the day before   last week(month) --- the week(month) before   three days(a year)ago---three days(a year)before   tomorrow ----the next (following ) day   next week(month)--the next(following)week(month)   表地點的词 here --there   動詞 bring -- take   come --go   一般疑問句   1. 概念   能用yes / no(或相當於yes / no)回答的問句叫一般疑問句。   2. 含系动詞be的一般疑問句的構成   具體地說,就是當陈述句中有am /is / are時,可直接將它们提至主語前,但如遇第一人稱,最好將其置換成第二人稱。如:   I’m in Class 2, Grade 1. →Are you in Class 2, Grade 1? 你是在一年級二班嗎?   3. 含情態動詞的一般疑問句的構成   一般疑問句面前人人平等:情態動詞與am / is / are一樣,也可直接將它們提至主語前,所以问題迎刃而解了。如:   I can spell it. →Can you spell it? 你會拼寫它嗎?   4. 含實義動詞的一般疑問句的構成   含實義動詞的一般疑問句的構成稍微有點讲究,要在句首加do;如逢主語为第三人稱單數,謂語動詞为一般現在時單數第三人稱形式"v-(e)s"時,奉does為座上賓並要變回原形(如has→have,likes→like等);有時陳述句中的some還要變作any等。如:   She lives in Beijing. →Does she live in Beijing? 她住在北京嗎?   I like English. →Do you like English? 你喜歡英語嗎?   There are some books on my desk.→Are there any books on your desk?   5. 少數口語化的一般疑問句   如問一個與前文相同的问句時,可省略成"And you?"或"What / How about...?"等;甚至只抓關键詞,讀作升調。如:Your pen? 你的鋼筆?   6. 小插曲:一般疑問句的語調   大部分的一般疑問句都应讀作升調(↗),並落在最後一個單詞身上。如:Is it a Chinese car↗?   7. 一般疑問句的應答   用yes / no(或相當於yes / no的词)回答,並怎麼問怎麼答(句首為情態動詞am / is / are還是do /does),簡略回答時要注意縮寫(否定的n’t)和採用相應的人稱代詞以避免重複:即"Yes,主语(代詞)+情態動詞或am / is / are或do / does."表示肯定;"No,主語(代詞)+情態動詞或am / is / are或者do / does not(n’t)."表示否定。如:   ① -Is Mary a Japanese girl? 瑪麗是日本女孩嗎?   -Yes, she is. / No, she isn’t. 是的,她是。/不,她不是。   ② -Can Lily speak Chinese? 莉莉會說中國話嗎?   -No, she can’t. / Sorry, I don’t know. 不,她不會。/對不起,我不知道。   ③ -Do you like English? 你喜歡英語嗎?   -Yes, very much. 是的,非常喜歡。   一、如何變人稱;   下面有一句順口溜“一隨主。二隨賓,第三人稱不更新”。“一隨主”是指在直接引語變間接引语時,如果從句中的主語是第一人稱或被第一人稱所修饰。從句中的人稱要按照主句中主語的人稱變化如:   She said. "My brother wants to go with me. "→She said her brother wanted to go with her.   “二隨賓”是指直接引語变間接引語時,若從句中的主語及賓語是第二人稱。或被第二人你所修飾。從句中的人稱要跟引號外的主句的賓語一致。如果引號外的主句沒有宾語。也可以用第一人稱,如:   He said to Kate. "How is your sister now?"→He asked Kate how her sister was then。   “第三人稱不更新”是指直接引語變間接引语時。如果從句中的主語及宾語是第三人稱或被第三人称所修飾從句中的人稱一般不需要變化如:   Mr Smith said。 "Jack is a good worker。"→Mr Smith said Jack was a good worker。   二、如何變時態:   直接引語在改為間接引語時、時態需要做相應的調整。   現在時它需改為過去時態;過去時態改為完成時;過去完成時則保留原來的時態。如:   1)She said. "I have lost a pen."→She said she had lost a pen   2)She said. "We hope so."→She said they hoped so.   3) She said. "He will go to see his friend。"→She said he would go to see his friend。   但要注意在以下幾種情況下。在直接引語變為間接引語時,時態一般不變化。   ①直接引語是客觀真理。   "The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth, the teacher told me. → The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth。   ②直接引語是過去进行時,時態不變。如:   Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?"→Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street。   ③直接引语中有具體的過去某年、某月、某日作狀語,變為間接引語時,時態不變。如:   Xiao Wang said. "I was born on April 2l, 1980。" →Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980。   ④直接引語如果是一般現在時。表示一種反覆出现或習慣性的動作,變間接引語,時態不變。如:   He said, "I get up at six every morning。" →He said he gets up at six every morning。   ⑤如果直接引語中的情態動詞沒有過去時的形式(例:ought to, had better, used to)和已經是過去時的形式時,(例:could, should, would, might)不再變。如:   Peter said. "You had better come have today。" →Peter said I had better go there that day。   三、如何變狀語:   直接引語变間接引語,狀語變化有其内在規津,時間狀語由“現在”改為“原來”(例:now變為then, yesterday。變為 the day before)地點狀語,尤其表示方向性的,或用指示代詞修飾的狀語,由“此”改為“彼”(例:this 改為that),如:   He said, "These books are mine." →He said those books were his.   四、如何變句型:   ①直接引語如果是陳述句,間接引語應改為由that引導的賓語從句。如:She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes."→She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes.   ②直接引語如果是反意疑問句,选擇疑問句或一般疑問句,间接引語應改為由whether或if引導的賓語從句.如:He said, "Can you swim, John?" →He asked John if he could swim.   "You have finished the homework, haven‘t you?" my mother asked. →My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework.   "Do you go to school by bus or by bike?" →He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike.   ③直接引語如果是特殊問句,間接引語應該改為由疑問代詞或疑問副詞引導的賓語从句(賓語從句必須用陳述句語序)。   She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?"→ She asked me when they had their dinner.   ④直接引語如果是祈使句,間接引語應改為"tell(ask, order, beg等) sb (not) to do sth."句型。如:   "Don’t make any noise," she said to the children. →She told (ordered) the children not to make any noise. "Bring me a cup of tea, please," said she.→She asked him to bring her a cup of tea.   ⑤直接引語如果是以“Let‘s”開頭的祈使句,變為間接引語時,通常用“suggest +動句詞(或從句)。”如:   He said, "Let’s go to the film." →He suggested going to the film.或He suggested that they should go to see the film.   引述別人的話有兩種方式:一是使用引號引出人家的原话,這叫做直接引語;一是用自己的話把人家的話轉述出來,這叫做間接引語。例如:   John said, "I’m going to London with my father."   約翰說:"我要和父親到伦敦去。"(引號內是直接引語)   John said that he was going to London with his father.   約翰說,他要和他父親去伦敦。(賓語從句是間接引语)   由直接引語變為间接引語,分以下情況:   1. 直接引語是陳述句時   間接引語為that引導的賓語從句(口語中that可以省略),主句的引述動詞主要有say ,tell, repeat, explain, think等。   He said , "You are younger than I."-’He said (that ) I was younger than him.   2.直接引語是疑問句時   間接引語為陳述語序:主句的謂語動詞say 改為ask,或改為wonder, do not know, want to know, be not sure, be puzzled等。   (1) 一般疑問句或反意疑問句變為if (whether)引導的賓語從句。   She said, "Do you often come here to read newspapers?"   →She asked me if (或whether)I often went there to read newspapers.   She asked me , "You have seen the film, haven’t you?"   →She asked me whether(或if )I had seen the film.   (2) 選擇疑问句變為whether….or 賓語從句。   I asked him, "Will you stay at home or go to a film tonight?"   →I asked him whether he would stay at home or go to a film that night.   (3)特殊疑問句變為由原來的疑問詞引導的賓語從句。   He asked , "Where do you live?"   →He asked me where I lived.   3.直接引語是祈使句時   間接引語為不定式,作ask , tell, beg, order, warn, advise等動詞的賓語補足語(don’t 變為not ).   The teacher said to the boy, "Open the window."→The teacher told the boy to open the window.   His father said to him , "Don’t leave the door open."→His father told him not to leave the door open.   [注意]   (1) 有些表示建議、提議、勸告或要求的祈使句,可以用suggest ,insist等動詞 加以轉述。例如:   He said, "Let’s go to the theatre."   →He suggested (our )going to the theatre.或He suggested that we(should) go to the theatre.   (2) "Would you mind opening the window?" he asked.   →He asked me to open the window.   "Why don’t you take a walk after supper?" he asked .   →he advised me to take a walk after supper.   "Shall we listen to the music?" he asked.   →He suggested listening to the music.   4.直接引語是感嘆句時   間接引語為what 或how 引導,也可以用that 引導。   She said, "What a lovely day it is !"   →She said what a lovely day it was .或She said that it was a lovely day.   5.如果主句謂語动詞為各種現在時或一般將来時,則間接引語中的動詞仍保持直接引語原來時態。如果主句謂語動詞為過去時,間接引語中的動詞時態按下列變化:   (1) 一般現在時變為一般過去時   (2) 現在進行時变為過去進行時   (3) 一般將來時變為過去將来時   (4) 現在完成時變為過去完成時   (5) 一般過去時變為過去完成時   (6) 過去完成時不變,仍為過去完成時   [注意]   (1) 如果直接引語是表示客觀真理時,變為間接引语,一般現在時不改為一般过去時。如:   The teacher said "The earth goes round the sun."   →The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.   (2) 如果直接引語中有明確表示過时間的狀語,變為間接引語时,一般過去時不改為過去完成時。如:   He said to me, "I was born in 1973."   →He told me that he was born in 1973.   (3)如果直接引语所述事實在當時和目前同样生效,變為間接賓語時,一般現在時不改為一般過去时。如:   He said, "I’m a boy, not a girl."   →He said that he is a boy ,not a girl.   (4)如果直接引語中的謂语動詞表示一種反覆出現或习慣動作,在變為間接引時,一般現在時不改為一般過去時。如:   The girl said, "I get up at six every morning."   →The girl said that she gets up at six every morning.   (5)如果直接引語中含有since, when, while 引導的表示過去時間的狀语從句,在變為間接引語時,只改變主句中的謂語動詞,從句的一般過去時則不變。如:   He said to me, "I have taught English since he came here ."   →He told me that he had taught English since he came here.   (6)如果直接引語中含有情態動词 must, need, had better以及情態動詞的過去式could, might, should, would,在變為間接引語時,這些情態動詞沒有時態的改變。例如:   The teacher said to me . "You must pay more attention to your pronunciation."   →The teacher told me that I must (have to ) pay more attention to my pronunciation.   He said , "I could swim when I was only six ."   →He said that he could swim when he was only six.   6.代詞等一般地應作用相應的变化。   指示代詞 this ---that   these--- those   表示時間的词 now --- then   today--- that day   this week(month ,etc) ----that week (month ,etc)   yesterday ----the day before   last week(month) --- the week(month) before   three days(a year)ago---three days(a year)before   tomorrow ----the next (following ) day   next week(month)--the next(following)week(month)   表地點的词 here --there   動詞 bring -- take   come --go

虛擬語氣的間接引語?

  拉丁語語法名詞,又叫間接引述,英文為 indirect statement。指用在表述意見的動词 [perception] 之後的一種從句,這种從句並非由主語直接敘述出來,而是通過第三人轉述的。實際上間接引語大都是宾語從句,當直接引語為祈使句,陳述句,疑問句被轉换成間接引語時,句子的結构,人稱,時態,時間,時间狀語和地點狀語等都要發生改變。   如:他們说:“皇帝死後將成為神。” [直接引語] Dixere:"Augustus post mortem deum factus erit."   他們说,那個皇帝死後將成為神。[間接引語] Dixere Augustum post mortem deum faciendum esse.   間接引語中,引語的主語要使用賓格,動詞要使用不定式,不定式的時态取決於引語動詞發生的時间與主句動詞時間的先後性,不定式的性、數取決於間接引語的主語(如前所述,只用賓格)。如:   Consules sentiunt servos non esse liberandos. 執政官們认為奴隸們不該被釋放。   主句動詞是認為:sentiunt ,時態是現在时。間接引語中的動詞是不定式 liberandos esse,是將來時,因為“被釋放”的動作是發生在主句動詞“認為”之後的。liberandos 的性(陽性)、數(複數)與間接引語的主語servos 保持一致。   Fama erat patrem meum interfectum esse; fratrem autem etiam vivere. 曾有訊息說,我的父親遭殺害;而我的一個兄弟仍活著。   這裡有兩句間接引語。前面一句的動詞是 interfectum esse,是不定式的完成時,表示“被殺害”的動作是發生在fama erat [訊息到來]之前的;後一句的動詞是 vivere, 是不定式的現在時,表示“活著”这個動作與訊息到來同步。   [思路分析]   如下   [解題過程]   直接引語和間接引語詳解   引述或轉述別人的話稱為“引語”。直接引用別人的原话,兩邊用引號“ “標出,叫做直接引語;用自己的语言轉述別人的話,不需要引號這叫做間接引語,實际上間接引語大都是賓語從句(其中由祈使句轉換的間接引語除外,其轉換後是不定式)。那麼直接引語為陳述句、一般疑問句、特殊疑问句和祈使句,轉換為間接引語時,句子的結構,人稱、時態、時間狀語和地點狀语等都要有變化,如何變化呢?   1、人稱的轉變   1)直接引語中的第一人稱,一般轉換為第三人稱,如:   He said,“I am very sorry.” ——>He said that he was very sorry.   2)直接引語中的第二人稱,如果原话是針對轉述人說的,轉換为第一人稱,如:   “You should be more careful next time,” my father told me.——>   My father told me that I should be more careful the next time.   3)直接引語中的第二人稱,如果原话是針對第三人稱說的,轉换成第三人稱。如:   She said to her son, “I'll check your homework tonight.” ——>   She said to her son that she would check his homework that night.   4)人稱的轉換包括人稱代詞、物主代詞和名詞性物主代词等,如:   He asked me, “Will you go to the station with me to meet a friend of mine this afternoon?” ——>   He asked me whether I would go to the station with him to meet a friend of his that afternoon.   總之,人稱的轉換不是固定的,具體情況,具體對待,要符合邏輯。   2、時态的轉換   直接引語改为間接引語時,主句中的謂语動詞如果是過去時,從句(即間接引語部分)的謂語动詞在時態方面要作相應的變化,變成過去时範疇的各種時態(實際也是賓語從句的時態要求),變化如下:   直接引語 間接引語   一般現在時 一般過去時   一般過去時 過去完成时   現在進行時 過去进行時   過去完成時 過去完成時   現在完成時 過去完成時   過去進行時 過去進行時   一般將來時 過去將來時   例如:   “I am very glad to visit your school”, she said. ——>   She said she was very glad to visit our school.   Tom said, “We are listening to the pop music.” ——>   Tom said that they were listening to the pop music.   Mother asked, “Have you finished your homework before you watch TV?” ——>   Mother asked me whether I had finished my homework before I watched TV.   He asked the conductor, “Where shall I get off to change to a No. 3 bus?” ——>   He asked the conductor where he would get off to change to a No. 3 bus.   “Why did she refuse to go there?” the teacher asked. ——>   The teacher asked why she had refused to go there.   Mother asked me, “Had you finished your homework before you watched TV?” ——>   Mother asked me whether I had finished my homework before I watched TV.   Tom said, “We were having a football match this time yesterday.” ——>   Tom said that they were having a football match that time the day before.   He said,“I haven't heard from my parents these days.” ——>   He said that he hadn't heard from his parents those days.   3、直接引語變成間接引語時,从句時態無須改變的情況   1)當主句的謂語動詞是一般現在時的時候,如:   He always says, “I am tired out.” ——>He always says that he is tired out.   2)當主句的謂語動詞是將來時的時候,如:   He will say, “I’ll try my best to help you.” ——>He will say that he will try his best to help me.   3)当直接引語部分帶有具體的过去時間狀語時,如:   He said, “I went to college in 1994.” ——>He told us that he went to college in 1994.   4)當直接引語中有以when, while引導的從句,表示過去的时間時,如:   He said,“When I was a child, I usually played football after school.” ——>   He said that when he was a child, he usually played football after school.   5)當直接引语是客觀真理或自然現象時,如:   Our teacher said to us, “Light travels faster than sound.” ——>   Our teacher told us that light travels faster than sound.   6)當引語是諺語、格言時,如:   He said,“Practice makes perfect.” ——>He said that practice makes perfect.   7)當直接引語中有情態動詞should, would, could, had better, would rather, might, must, ought to, used to, need時,如:   例如:   The doctor said, “You'd better drink plenty of water.” ——>   The doctor said I'd better drink plenty of water.   He said, “She must be a teacher.”——> He said that she must be a teacher.   He said, “She ought to have arrived her office by now.”——>   He said that she ought to have arrived her office by then.   The teacher said, “You needn't hand in your compositions today.”——>   The teacher said we needn't/didn't need to/didn't have to hand in our compositions.   She asked, “Must I take the medicine?”——> She asked if she had to take the medicine.   〔注〕:此處用had to代替must更好   8)此外轉述中的變化要因實際情況而定,不能機械照搬,如果當地轉述,here不必改為there, 動詞come不必改為go,如果當天轉述yesterday, tomorrow, this afternoon等均不必改變。如:   Teacher: You may have the ball game this afternoon.   Student : What did the teacher say, Monitor?   Monitor: He said we might have the ball game this afternoon.   4、時間狀語、地点狀語及某些對比性的指示代詞和動詞變化   1)时間狀語:   直接引語 間接引語 直接引語 間接引語   now (then); tomorrow (the next / following day )   today (that day); next week (the next / following week / month / year)   yesterday(the day before) two days ago( two days before )   last week /month/ year (the week/month/ year before) this week/month/year (that week/month/ year)   2)指示代詞:these 變成those   3)地點狀語:here變成there   She said, “I won't come here any more.”——> She said that she wouldn’t go there any more..   4)動詞:come變成go,bring變成take   5、直接引語變成間接引語,句子結构的變化   1)陳述句。用連詞that引導,that在口語中常省略。主句的謂語動詞可直用接引語中的said, 也可用told來代替,注意,可以说said that, said to sb. that, told sb. that,不可直接说told that, 如:   He said, “I have been to the Great Wall.” ——>He said to us that he had been to the Great Wall.   He said, “I'll give you an examination next Monday.”——>   He told us that he would give us an examination the next Monday.(不可說told that)   此外主句中的謂語還常有:   repeat, whisper, answer, reply, explain, announce, declare, think等,又如:   He said,“I'm late because of the heavy traffic.”——> He explained to us that he was late because of the heavy traffic.   如果間接引語是由that引導的兩個或兩个以上的並列從句,第一個连詞可以省略,以後的連詞一般不省略,以免混乱。   The doctor said, “You are not seriously ill, You will be better soon.”——>   The doctor said(that)I was not seriously ill and that I would be better soon.   2)直接引語為一般疑問句,(也稱是否疑问句,)間接引語用連詞whether或if引導,原主句中謂語動詞said要改為asked(me/him/us等),語序是陈述句的語序,這一點非常重要。   He said, “Do you have any difficulty with pronunciation?”——>   He asked(me)whether/if I had any difficulty with my pronunciation.   He said, “You are interested in English, aren't you?”——>   He asked whether I was interested in English.   3) 直接引語為选擇疑問句,間接引語用whether…or…表達,而不用if…or…,也不用either…or…. 如:   He asked, “Do you speak English or French?”——>   He asked me whether I spoke English or French..   I asked, “Will you take bus or take train?”——>   I asked him whether he would take bus or take train.   4)直接引語为特殊疑問句,改成間接引语時,原來的疑問詞作為間接引語的連詞,主句的謂語动詞用ask(sb.)來表達,語序改為陳述句語序。如:   He asked,“What's your name?”——> He asked(me)what my name was.   He asked us, “How many car factories have been built in your country?”——>   He asked us how many car factories had been built in our country.   5)直接引語為祈使句時,改為间接引語,用帶to的不定式表達,謂語動詞常是ask, advise, tell, warn, order, request等。如ask sb. to do,(由肯定祈使句變成)ask sb. not to do(由否定祈使句轉變),並且在不定式短語中的時間狀語、地点狀語、人稱及時態都作相应的變化。如:   He said,“Be seated, please.”——> He asked us to be seated.   “Do be careful with your handwriting.” He said. ——>   He told me to be careful with my handwriting.   “Never come here again!” said the officer nearby. ——>   The officer ordered the villagers never to go there again.   “Don't touch anything in the lab without permission,” the teacher said. ——>   The teacher warned the students not to touch anything in the lab without permission.   6)有些含有“建議”——>、“勸告”——>的祈使句,可用suggest, insist, offer等動詞轉述,如:   He said, “Let's have a rest.”——> He suggested our having a rest.   He said, “Let me help you.”——> He offered to help me.   7)當直接引語形式上是疑問句,有表示請求,建议意義時,可用ask sb. to do sth. /suggest doing/advise sb. to do sth. 等形式轉述。如:   “Would you mind opening the door?” he asked. ——>He asked me to open the door.   “Why not going out for a walk?” he asked us. ——>   He advised us to go out for a walk. 或He suggested we go out for a walk.   8)直接引語是感嘆句時,變間接引語可用what或how引導,也可用that引導,如:   She said, “What a lovely day it is!”——> She said what a lovely day it was. 或She said that it was a lovely day.   巢狀間接引語的從句:   如果間接引語當中还鑲嵌有另一句從句,則被称為巢狀間接引語的從句,英文叫:the subordinate clause in indirect statement。這時,這樣的從句要使用虛擬語氣。從句動詞的時態與主句動詞的時態相关聯。如:   Dux dicebat militem qui fugisset poenas daturum esse. 統帥曾常說,那個逃跑的士兵將要受到懲罰。   qui fugisset[逃跑] 是一句關係從句,修飾militem “士兵”,由於處在dicebat [說]後面的間接引語當中,因此需使用虛擬語氣。間接引語的動詞是不定式 daturum esse[将受到],為將來時,因為动作發生在主句動詞“說”之後,而 fugisset [逃跑]為虛擬語氣的过去完成時,表示在統帥“说話”之前已經逃走了。   如何把直接引語變間接引語   “一隨主”是指在直接引語變間接引語時,如果從句中的主語是第一人稱或被第一人稱所修飾。從句中的人稱要按照主句中主語的人稱變化如:   She said. "My brother wants to go with me. "→She said her brother wanted to go with her.   “二隨賓”是指直接引語变間接引語時,若從句中的主語及賓語是第二人稱。或被第二人你所修飾。從句中的人稱要跟引號外的主句的賓語一致。如果引號外的主句沒有宾語。也可以用第一人稱,如:   He said to Kate. "How is your sister now?"→He asked Kate how her sister was then。   “第三人稱不更新”是指直接引語變間接引语時。如果從句中的主語及宾語是第三人稱或被第三人称所修飾從句中的人稱一般不需要變化如:   Mr Smith said。 "Jack is a good worker。"→Mr Smith said Jack was a good worker。   變時態:   直接引語在改為間接引語時、时態需要做相應的調整。   現在時它需改為過去時態;過去時態改為完成時;過去完成時則保留原來的時態。如:   1)She said. "I have lost a pen."→She said she had lost a pen   2)She said. "We hope so."→She said they hoped so.   3) She said. "He will go to see his friend。"→She said he would go to see his friend。   但要注意在以下幾種情況下。在直接引語變為間接引語時,時態一般不變化。   ①直接引語是客觀真理。   "The earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth, the teacher told me. → The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun and the moon moves around the earth。   ②直接引語是過去进行時,時態不變。如:   Jack said. "John, where were you going when I met you in the street?"→Jack asked John where he was going when he met him in the street。   ③直接引语中有具體的過去某年、某月、某日作狀語,變為間接引語時,時態不變。如:   Xiao Wang said. "I was born on April 2l, 1980。" →Xiao Wang said he was born on April 20, 1980。   ④直接引語如果是一般現在時。表示一種反覆出现或習慣性的動作,變間接引語,時態不變。如:   He said, "I get up at six every morning。" →He said he gets up at six every morning。   ⑤如果直接引語中的情態動詞沒有過去時的形式(例:ought to, had better, used to)和已經是過去時的形式時,(例:could, should, would, might)不再變。如:   Peter said. "You had better come have today。" →Peter said I had better go there that day。   三、如何變狀語:   直接引語变間接引語,狀語變化有其内在規津,時間狀語由“現在”改為“原來”(例:now變為then, yesterday。變為 the day before)地點狀語,尤其表示方向性的,或用指示代詞修飾的狀語,由“此”改為“彼”(例:this 改為that),如:   He said, "These books are mine." →He said those books were his.   四、如何變句型:   ①直接引語如果是陳述句,間接引語應改為由that引導的賓語從句。如:She said, "Our bus will arrive in five minutes."→She said that their bus would arrive in five minutes.   ②直接引語如果是反意疑問句,选擇疑問句或一般疑問句,间接引語應改為由whether或if引導的賓語從句.如:He said, "Can you swim, John?" →He asked John if he could swim.   "You have finished the homework, haven‘t you?" my mother asked. →My mother asked me whether I had finished the homework.   "Do you go to school by bus or by bike?" →He asked me if I went to school by bus or by bike.   ③直接引語如果是特殊問句,間接引語應該改為由疑問代詞或疑問副詞引導的賓語从句(賓語從句必須用陳述句語序)。   She asked me, "When do they have their dinner?"→ She asked me when they had their dinner.   ④直接引語如果是祈使句,間接引語應改為"tell(ask, order, beg等) sb (not) to do sth."句型。如:   "Don’t make any noise," she said to the children. →She told (ordered) the children not to make any noise. "Bring me a cup of tea, please," said she.→She asked him to bring her a cup of tea.   ⑤直接引語如果是以“Let‘s”開頭的祈使句,變為間接引語時,通常用“suggest +動句詞(或從句)。”如:   He said, "Let’s go to the film." →He suggested going to the film.或He suggested that they should go to see the film.   引述別人的話有兩種方式:一是使用引號引出人家的原话,這叫做直接引語;一是用自己的話把人家的話轉述出來,這叫做間接引語。例如:   John said, "I’m going to London with my father."   約翰說:"我要和父親到伦敦去。"(引號內是直接引語)   John said that he was going to London with his father.   約翰說,他要和他父親去伦敦。(賓語從句是間接引语)

虛擬語ư?

  原發布者:技術員童鞋   SubjunctiveMood虛擬語氣第一節語气(theMood)語氣是動詞的又一種形式,表示说話者或寫作者對發生的動作或所處的狀況所持的態度和看法。英語有三種語氣:陈述語氣、祈使語氣虛擬語气。一、陳述語氣(theIndicativeMood)表示說話人認為他所说的是現實的、確定的或符合事實的。英語中絕大部分句子都是陳述語氣,用於陳述句、疑問句和某些感嘆句。二、祈使語氣(theImperativeMood)祈使語氣表示動作或狀态是說話人的命令、請求、建議或邀請等,用於祈使句中。使用祈使句時,應注意以下幾點:1.祈使句的主语通常是第二人稱“you”,但多不出現,動詞用原形,其否定式一律用don’t或donot加動詞原形(或be)。例如:Bemorecarefulnexttime.下次要小心些。Don’tsmokehere.不要在這兒抽菸。2.有時為了強調,主語可以出現,而且主語可以是第三人稱,謂语動詞不加-s或-es。例如:Youbequiet!請你們一定安靜下來!Youdon’tmove!你不要動!Hestandup!他給我站起來!Don’tyoulookoutofthewindow!你不要向窗外看!3.祈使句可用do來加強語氣。例如:DocomeovertoseemethiscomingSunday.這個星期天一定過來看望我。Dobemorepatientwiththechild.對孩子務必要耐心些。4.在Let’s的祈使句後,疑問部分通常用shallwe;在Letus後,疑問部分則用willyou。例如:Let’sgooutforawalkaftersupper,shal